We are finally done with spring planting! We have got potatoes, eggplant, peppers, summer and winter squash, cucumbers, lettuce, spinach, peas, and a dozen or so tomato varieties in the ground. Our cherry tree escaped the late snow and has cherries on it!
We had a tool blessing ceremony and potluck in honor of St. Joseph on March 19th; thanks so much to all who helped to make it a success! Below are some pictures.
The weather continued warm and dry, so we have got a lot of work done on the farm. Most of the beds are dug and amended, and we have planted cover crops on some of them. Our peas, kale, and broccoli are growing well under their row covers. We pulled down the hoop house and plan to rebuild it with removable end walls, more ventilation, a higher ridgepole, and the ability to be easily uncovered. Our old house started to build up pests after a few years under cover, was too hot on sunny days even in the winter, and was hard to work in due to the low clearance. We are completely rebuilding our Mary garden, and I hope to have some pictures soon. We upgraded the fence to keep rabbits from squeezing through.
However, the weather has now shifted. The spring rains have started; we got an inch yesterday, and there are several more inches in the forecast, accompanied by lower temperatures. I hope all the flowering trees will not be damaged; they are well ahead of schedule this year.
Winter came back a bit since our last update, and limited the amount of work we could do. But things are supposed to warm up again by the end of the week.
We planted out first batch of peas, under a row cover and a plastic covered tunnel. The peas were pre-sprouted in a can of warm water. Pre-sprouting helps seeds to germinate if the soil temperature is too cool or warm. Once the seeds start growing, they will continue to do so even if the soil temperature is not optimal. We used lots of bent rebar pins hammered into the soil to hold down the tunnel, in the hope that it won’t blow away. But since our farm is in a particularly windy spot, we will have to wait and see. I still don’t have pictures of this, but I’ll get them up soon, if it works!
In my last post on caring for the soil, I mentioned that there is an excess of potassium in the soil. Organic matter typically contains a large amount of potassium in it relative to other elements; potassium is used to build the structure of plants, and thus materials such as wood chips, straw, and leaves contain a lot of potassium, while the other more mobile elements have been leached out or moved by the plant into roots and seeds. So adding organic matter to our soil will increase the relative imbalance of potassium. This is a problem, because organic matter is very important to soil health. It helps the soil form a good crumb structure, hold water and nutrients from leaching away, and most importantly, feeds the microorganisms, which protect and feed the plants. The more life there is in the soil, the better, and organic matter is the fuel for this life.
To add organic matter without unbalancing the soil, we will be growing lots of cover crops, particularly rye, sorghum, oats, and clover. These plants will loosen the soil, protect it from the sun and wind, and add organic matter to the soil when they decompose, all without adding any more potassium. This is also more sustainable then importing organic matter from other soils to their detriment. Legume cover crops, such as clover, vetch, and field peas, also fix nitrogen from the air with the help of symbiotic bacteria. Eventually, we hope to grow all our own nitrogen in this manner and avoid purchasing nitrogen fertilizer.
Avoiding the importation of organic matter will also help us avoid any potential contaminants. Recently, new herbicides have been developed that do not break down in the composting process; they can contaminate straw, manure, hay, and grass clippings, and when applied to a farm or garden, can inhibit the growth of broadleaf plants for as many as seven years.
We recently borrowed a broadfork to assess its performance on our farm. A broadfork is a larger version of the standard garden digging fork, with specially shaped long tines, a wide crossbar, and two handles. For pictures and video of a broadfork in action, here is a link to the version made by Valley Oak. I’m very happy with it; using it allowed us to loosen our hard soil a foot down, without the smearing and destruction of soil life and structure associated with tilling or plowing. Using it is also more enjoyable then using a tiller. Over time, the roots of the cover crops mentioned above will fill the soil voids produced by the broadfork, making the improvement permanent and creating a deep, rich topsoil.
The weather has been warm and springlike here in Littleton, and so we’ve been having fun digging in the dirt, spading up beds and mixing fertilizer.
Our biggest project this week was building low tunnels to protect some early plantings. In previous years, we’ve had two problems with these structures. They tend to get wind damaged; and, since we used long rebar stakes to hold up the PVC hoops, they were hard to move once the rebar had rusted into the ground. But we are working on a new design which should solve both problems. I’ll try to have a full post on this, and pictures of our tunnels, up next week.
We pruned the orchard; all the trees are still alive! And we hope to put in more perennial plantings this spring, particularly a hedge to block the North wind.
At the end of the week we held our annual planning meeting. We spent a lot of time discussing our new membership structure. Alongside the main gardens we will be providing members with individual plots where they can plant whatever they are interested in. Soil preparation and watering for the plots, and the care of the orchard and infrastructure, will be done by the group as a whole. We hope this arrangement will combine the best of the community planting and the individual plot models. We also discussed: upcoming events, particularly our tool blessing on March 19th; garage sales as fundraisers; planting more trees and shrubs on the farm; taking field trips to agricultural sites in the area; and beautifying the Mary garden.
Denver had a wild March, weather-wise. The first half of the month was warm and dry, followed by cold and more then a foot of snow around Easter. Despite that, we got a lot done. Tomato seedlings are sprouting in heated frames, many of them from seeds saved the year before. The gardens on both farms are being prepped and fertilized; we are using the fertilizing schemes advised by Steve Solomon, author of The Intelligent Gardener. Peas and cabbage family plants are up. Our herbs have mostly made it through the winter, and our trees are showing signs of life. There is an ongoing project underway to upgrade the greenhouse; we reinforced and repaired the frame and windows, and are working to incorporate thermal mass, more insulation, a worm bin, and better planting beds. We are experimenting with container growing in the greenhouse, hoping to gain greater mobility which will increase our utilization of the space, since cool weather crops can be moved out once warm weather things need to go in. We are also experimenting with pre-sprouting seed before planting; this eliminates the often detrimental effects of soil temperature and fluctuating moisture. Both Farms survived the snowstorms with minimal damage.